AI Trends

Our Trends section features key numbers and data visualizations in AI, related Epoch reports and other sources that showcase the change and growth in AI over time.

Last updated on Nov 22, 2023

Display growth values in:

Training compute
4.2 x/year
Training data
Most parameters in a dense model
540 billion
Computational performance
1.35 x/year
Algorithmic improvements
2.5 %/year
Training costs
3.1 x/year


We thank Tom Davidson, Lukas Finnveden, Charlie Giattino, Zach-Stein Perlman, Misha Yagudin, Robi Rahman, Jai Vipra, Patrick Levermore, Carl Shulman, Ben Bucknall and Daniel Kokotajlo for their feedback.

Several people have contributed to the design and maintenance of this dashboard, including Jaime Sevilla, Pablo Villalobos, Anson Ho, Tamay Besiroglu, Ege Erdil, Ben Cottier, Matthew Barnett, David Owen, Robi Rahman, Lennart Heim, Marius Hobbhahn, David Atkinson, Keith Wynroe, Christopher Phenicie, Alex Haase and Edu Roldan.


Cite this work as

Epoch (2023), "Key trends and figures in Machine Learning". Published online at Retrieved from: '' [online resource]

BibTeX citation

  title = "Key trends and figures in Machine Learning",
  author = {Epoch},
  year = 2023,
  url = {},
  note = "Accessed: "

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